Finest Hour 112

AMPERSAND – RESIDENCES OF WINSTON S. CHURCHILL 1874-1965

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 55

Compiled by Richard M. Langworth

A compendium of facts eventually to appear as a reader’s guide.


Official residences (5) such as Admiralty House and Downing Street are listed only for the periods the Churchills actually resided there. Residences asterisked (*) are London addresses which carry the blue historical plaque. (It is not clear whether the Churchills fully vacated Hyde Park Gate during the 1951-55 Premiership.)

Included are temporary quarters, such as the Ivor and Freddie Guest residences, used between homes; and holiday rentals: Pear Tree Cottage (occupied for summer holidays at the outbreak of World War I); Hoe Farm, where Churchill learned to paint; and “Hosey Rigge,” rented by WSC during the overhaul of Chartwell, which he nicknamed “Cozy Pig.”

Key references are Speaking for Themselves: The Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill, by Mary Soames; and the official biography, Winston S. Churchill, by Randolph S. Churchill and Sir Martin Gilbert.

London Primary Residences

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KEEPING THE MEMORY GREEN – LEADING CHURCHILL MYTHS – (2) “An actor read Churchill’s wartime speeches over the wireless.”

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 52

By SIR ROBERT RHODES JAMES

In “Ampersand, “Finest Hour 110:47, ToddRonnei listed 18 common Churchill myths, while in the letters column William Roeder suggested we undertake a booklet, Winston Churchill: Setting the Record Straight. We continue hacking away at the weed growth. This article is adapted from FH 92, including later information in FH 109.


On June 4th, 1940 in the House of Commons, at the darkest moment in British history, Winston Churchill made one of the greatest speeches in the annals of oratory. It galvanised a hitherto skeptical Commons, and its superb use of language and spirit of defiance affected not only his fellow-countrymen but echoed around the world, not least in the United States. Wars are not won by speeches, but they are by leadership, and that speech gave the authentic voice of a confident leader who wanted to lead.

It was his fourth speech as Prime Minister. His accession to the position had been controversial, and in fact was by default. He was viewed with hostility in both the principal political parties.

It opened prosaically enough with a factual account of the French collapse, the evacuation at Dunkirk, and preparations for home defence. But he then said his government was determined to “ride out the storm of war, and to outlive the menace of tyranny, if necessary for years, if necessary alone.”
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Arts – Recipes From No. 10: Creme Doria (Cucumber Soup)

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 51

By Georgina Landemare, Churchill family cook, 1940s-1950s updated and annotated for the modern kitchen by Barbara Langworth (b_langworth @conknet. com)


Sir Winston did not care for thick or creamy soups, but the rest of the family were fond of them. When Mrs. Landemare served something like this delicious cucumber recipe he would have consomme.

Creme Doria

1 large cucumber [make sure it is not waxed]
1 large shallot
2 Tb butter
2 Tb raw rice
1 quart [32 oz] chicken stock
3 Tb cream
1 beaten egg yolk
Salt and pepper
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CHURCHILL ONLINE – Did the Allies Fear a Soviet Scuttle?

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 50

Correspondence over “Listserv Winston”


The Churchill Center maintains an internet listgroup that allows you to communicate with 500″people worldwide on any Churchill subject. Subscriptions are free. To subscribe, send the two word message SUBSCRIBE WINSTON, followed by your name, to: listserv@vm. marist.edu and then follow the instructions you receive back. The listgroup is maintained for us by kind courtesy ofMarist College. If you have any problems, email our host, Prof. Jonah Triebwasser (jonah.triebwasser@marist.edu).

Point

David Kennedy’s Freedom from Fear (612) states: “Even larger anxieties proliferated about Soviet intentions. In midsummer 1943 Stalin had withdrawn his ambassadors from both London and Washington. In September came rumors that the Germans had extended a peace feeler to Moscow through Japan stimulating anew the fear of a separate settlement in eastern Europe before a second front had even opened in the west. One observer detected “an atmosphere alarmingly reminiscent of that which had preceded the Molotov Ribbentrop pact of August 1939.” There’s a footnote to Foreign Relations of the United States (1943) and Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 734.

Counterpoint

In 1943, Stalin fumed over the failure of FDR and Churchill to launch a second front, and wrote them a message full of contempt. Sherwood states (697): “Undoubtedly [Roosevelt’s] timing of the [Unconditional Surrender] statement at Read More >

INSIDE THE JOURNALS – Churchill and the American Presidents; Dill did more than dally…

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 49

Abstracts by Chris Hanger


Riccards, Michael P., “Waging the Last War: Winston Churchill and the Presidential Imagination,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 16(2), 1986, pp. 213-23.

Winston Churchill’s effect on U.S. presidents has been anything but uniform or clear-cut. His name and tenacity of purpose were frequently invoked by presidents in support of decisions, often compromising and confusing the context of a current situation with very different times.

To Woodrow Wilson, Churchill’s arguments in support of the League of Nations seemed less an argument for the League than a buttressing of British naval strength. While serving in cabinet posts during and after The Great War, Churchill fought Herbert Hoover’s plan to feed hungry Belgians, believing that to do so would take the burden of feeding off the Germans.

Churchill’s opposition to disarmament during the inter-war years led him to be depicted as an extremist. But with the advent of war in 1939, WSC’s seemingly overblown rhetoric about Hitler began to be more appreciated. His peculiar style of leadership, once considered self-centered and bellicose, was now regarded as inspiring, confident, and infectious.
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WOODS CORNER

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 48

By David Druckman & Mark Weber


A Trove of Churchilliana

David Druckman has brought to our attention several collections of well known works which include more Churchill material than the casual browser may realize.

The Anglo-Saxon Review

Lady Randolph Churchill’s fabulous hardbound literary magazine sold for $5 a copy and lasted ten issues (18991901). The Anglo-Saxon featured the best literary and society writers of its age. Each copy was bound in exquisitely tooled leather. The magazine is known to contain an important, rarely seen Churchill work, “British Cavalry” (volume 8). But there is also an unsigned favorable piece about Churchill (by his mother?) in volume 3, and Lady Randolph’s letters from the Boer War, sent from her Hospital ship the Maine (volume 5).

The Book of Public Speaking

First Edition. London: Caxton 1915. This excellent collection of great speeches is a mine of material that can still help guide and instruct public speakers by illustrating how the masters of oratory do it. The book is commonly seen in five volumes, but there is also a seven-volume edition which contains seven speeches by Churchill, one by Lord Randolph, Read More >

Books, Arts & Curiosities – “By Skips Alone”

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 47

By Curt Zoller

Lord Kitchener and Winston Churchill: The Dardanelles Commission, Volume I, 1914-15, edited by Tim Coates. London: The Stationery Office “Uncovered Edition” series, 2000, 216 pp., £6.99. The CC Book Club will place one order for this work. Will readers desiring a copy please advise the editor but send no money, we will bill you.


In 1917 the British government issued the Dardanelles Commission First Report and Supplement and later die Dardanelles Commission Final Report, Parts I and II. The same government has now released a two-volume abridged version in its “Uncovered Editions” series, a term for “historic official papers which have not previously been available in a popular form.”

Volume I reviews the circumstances surrounding the conception, execution and failure of the plan to sail through the Dardanelles to the Sea of Marmara, arrive off Constantinople and force Turkey to surrender “by ships alone.” The account is presented in narrative form, interspersed with quotations from some of the witnesses appearing before the Commission.

The Dardanelles had previously been forced in February 1807, when Great Britain sent a fleet under Admiral Duckworth to open the straits in case of necessity to act offensively against the Turks during the Napoleonic wars. Duckworth broke through and entered the Marmara with negligible losses. After eleven days the British warships returned down the straits, enduring heavy casualties from the now stronger Turkish batteries. Floating mines did not then exist.
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Books, Arts & Curiosities – Was Churchill a Flasher?

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 46

By Andrew Roberts

Churchill’s War, by David Irving, Volume 2: Triumph in Adversity, London: Focal Point Publications, 1064 pages, £25 ($40), member price $32.


Admirers of Sir Winston Churchill can breathe a huge sigh of relief. For 14 years since the publication of David Irving’s first volume on Churchill they have been waiting to see what new conspiracies the right-wing historian might have managed to dig up in the hundreds of archives from which he has worked, but in this thick hymn of hate it is clear he has not managed to land one single significant blow on the reputation of Britain’s wartime leader.

All the old accusations are trotted out: that Churchill was a rude, lying alcoholic who concealed Japan’s intention to attack Pearl Harbour from the Americans, was behind the murder of Britain’s ally the Polish leader General Sikorski, wanted to flatten Rome, and so on. There are even a few new and equally groundless ones: according to this volume Churchill was also a flasher who enjoyed exposing himself to foreign statesmen, was responsible for tipping off the Nazis to the fact that Britain had broken their codes, and asked MI6 to assassinate Britain’s other ally, General de Gaulle. I have counted a dozen new accusations in this volume, most of which would be laughable if they were not so foamingly presented, complete with 160 pages of notes that are alleged to back them up.

Yet when, for example, Irving claims that the then Queen Elizabeth (now the Queen Mother) supported Hitler’s peace offer in 1940, and that the proof is to be found in Box Number 23 of Lord Monckton’s papers at the Bodleian Library in Oxford, I recalled from my own work on Monckton that that particular box has never been open to historians. The Read More >

2001 Heritage Fund – A Special Request to American Members

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 44


Our Annual Report, which you have recently received, shows exciting progress toward our goal of advancing Churchill’s principles of leadership among the future leaders of our country and the world. As always, your annual donation to our working funds is responsible for much of this. We cannot do it without you!

Your annual subscription covers only about one-fourth of our expenses. We are as active as we are—particularly through seminars and symposia— only because of the continuous, generous and repeated support of our members.

Last year, we enjoyed a very successful Heritage Fund Appeal: 172 donations, a total of $26,485, average per donation $154. In launching our 2001 appeal, we wish to express gratitude to those who helped us so much last year. Their names are listed here. Our deepest and most sincere thanks to each and every one.

As you plan your end-of-year charitable donations, we hope you will again consider The Churchill Center. A dollar, or ten, or one hundred, or one thousand, goes so much further with us than the big charities—because we have only one modest goal: impressing the life and work of Winston Churchill firmly on the 21st century.
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“Whatever happened to the International Churchill Society?” – FUNDING THE CHURCHILL CENTER

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 43


At a recent meeting, several present asked “what happened to the International Churchill Society of the USA?” ICS/USA has become The Churchill Center. The name change was appropriate, we reasoned, since the organization had grown—from a society of people interested in Churchill to a major institution, including them but dedicated to impressing Churchill’s thoughts and deeds on young people through programs of teaching and publishing. The UK and Canadian organizations are still ICS, but at least one of them is thinking of becoming a “Churchill Centre” in its own right.

Five years ago we set out to create a multi-million dollar endowment. To date the amount pledged is $2 million and the amount in hand approaches $ 1 million. This money is never spent, but invested to sustain the Center’s work through its earnings. This year it will add about $50,000 to the Center’s budget. All of this success is due to the Churchill Center Associates (see next spread), who have donated or pledged from $10,000 on up to the endowment fund. All members of our Board are Associates.

Greater yet is the fact that we have an endowment now taken seriously by individuals to whom we have appealed for very large gifts. We are just now formalizing two major gifts from two such individuals, earmarked for specific projects—electronic teaching through our website and publications.
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THE PEOPLE’S RIGHTS-. OPPORTUNITY LOST?

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 42

By Andrew MacLaren

What would have happened had Churchill s Liberals succeeded in their original plan for reform?


In 1970, Jonathan Cape published a new edition of Churchill’s rare work, The People’s Rights (Woods A16). We have recently come across a copy containing an eight-page publisher’s pamphlet we had never seen before, the contents of which we publish herewith. The author owned a first edition he had bought new in 1910, possibly the copy Cape used for the offprint. Mr. MacLaren (see biographic note) was Labour MP for Burslem during 1922-45. His argument is akin to that of Malcolm Hill in Churchill: His Radical Decade, reviewed in Finest Hour 108:38. —Ed.

The republication of any Churchill work after sixty years is an event commanding widespread public interest. Such attention is owed the rich dessert of The People’s Rights, last published at the culmination of the election campaign of 1909/10, when the speeches from which Churchill compiled the book were delivered.

Many a reader will find himself astonished that so vivid a portrayal of one of the great men of our time should have lain so long out of print. Yet modern readers will miss much of the value of the book if it is read only for the brilliant and sometimes surprising insight into this vital stage of Churchill’s political development.
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EMINENT CHURCHILLIANS – Churchill Center and Society Leadership

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 41


Bernie Webber, ICS (Canada)

Bernard Webber, President and Chief Executive Officer 11 f i lie Insurance Information Ceniii of Canada, has been active in ihi Canadian technology industry u senior levels for 30 years. The IK C is a national technology and information organization whose member companies provide more than 95 percent of the private and public property and casualty insurance sold in Canada. Here, Bernie’s concentration has been on revitalizing the technology thrust of property and casualty associations. Prior to his arrival at the IICC in 1997, he was President and CEO of the Facility Association (FA), Canada’s P&C residual market for automobile insurance coverage. Over a span of 26 years he has held a number of senior positions with the Ontario Civil Service.

Bernie Webber was President of the Other Club of Ontario from 1992 through 1999; its twice-yearly “Evenings with Sir Winston” are often hosted by Bernie at his club, the historic Royal Canadian Military Institute. He was also finance chairman for the 1994 Calgary and 1997 Toronto Churchill conferences, where he played a critical role in keeping those expensive events in the black.

Any note about Bernie really must include his wife Jeanette, who has been the faithful membership secretary of ICS Canada for several years. Jeanette receives, checks, stuffs, stamps and posts Finest Hour and other publications to members from the Maritimes to the Yukon. Jeanette and Bernie are both very active in our joint dinners with the Albany Club of Toronto, planning the event and paying tribute to Churchill. They also attend most international conferences and were looking forward to San Diego as this was written.
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Wit & Wisdom

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 40


“Democracy is no Harlot”

In the “Person of the Century” hoopla, Globe & Mail columnist Rick Salutin wrote that Churchill “helped launch the Cold War by sending British troops to Greece to crush the anti-Nazi resistance.” Dear oh dear…

In April 1941, the Allies were forced to withdraw from Greece. That autumn, a communist-dominated resistance organisation called the National Liberation Front (EAM) was formed. In April 1942, EAM formed the Peoples Liberation Army (ELAS), which began recruiting guerrillas. Another group under Zervas (EDES), originally republican, was strongly anti-Communist. No group had contact with the Greek government in exile in London.

In autumn 1942, the first British Military Mission was parachuted into Greece to aid die guerrillas. On 4 July 1943, the King of Greece broadcast that a general election would be held soon after liberation, and that the exiled Greek Government would resign in order that a broadly based administration could be formed. But opinion in Greece favored more immediate action.

When Italy surrendered in September 1943, ELAS was able to acquire most of the Italian equipment, and quickly gained military supremacy. Churchill, worried about a communist coup, wrote General Ismay: “Should the Germans evacuate Greece, we must certainly be able to send five thousand British troops with armoured cars and Bren gun carriers into Athens….Their duty would be to give support at the centre to the restored lawful Greek Government….Once a stable government is set up, we should take our departure.”
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ALANBROOKE AND CHURCHILL

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 34

By CHRISTOPHER C. HARMON

Easily visible on secure plinths above all swirls or pettiness are two heroes. One is a first-class general, probably the best Chief of Imperial General Staff Britain ever knew. The other, looming even larger, is a soldier-turned-statesman, who probably saved the West.


Alan Francis Brooke1 served for five years as Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Britain’s highest-ranking army officer, he was the closest military adviser to Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill. Accordingly, in the late Fifties, when he published his World War II diaries, The Turn of the Tide and Triumph in the West, they were something of a scandal for their pungent, even brutal words about Churchill. Many were offended that so famous a statesman could be accused of boorishness, peevishness, and strategic lunacy by a general who had served him so long.

Historians had a different criticism of the original volumes, notably their heavy editing by the historian Arthur Bryant. Experts have long wondered what had been cut, what had been changed or obscured.2 Now they know.

In the new War Diaries, editors Alex Danchev and Daniel Todman include the full original diaries and the short passages Alanbrooke added after the war. Inevitably the new edition renews British attentions to the differences between the Field Marshal and Prime Minister.

Read anew, however, the entries seem to show that it was the strains and storms of war—more than Winston Churchill—that made these times so hard on Alanbrooke, whose utter exhaustion seeps through his prose. Penned for his wife, ostensibly with no intent of publication, the diaries were a steam vent for dealing with pressure.
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Action This Day – Autumn 1876, 1901, 1926, 1951

Finest Hour 112, Autumn 2001

Page 32

By Michael McMenamin


125 Years Ago:

Autumn 1876 • Age 1

“I Have the Crown of England in My Pocket”

Safe in the care of his nanny, Mrs. Everest, infant Winston was blissfully unaware of the tempest swirling around him. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was reaping that autumn the harvest he had sown in the spring. The problem had arisen when Lord Blandford, Randolph’s older brother and heir to the Dukedom, became involved in an illicit affair with Lady Aylesford— whose husband, like Lord Randolph, was a close friend of the Prince of Wales. Lord Aylesford had been traveling with the Prince in India when the infidelity was disclosed to him in a letter from his wayward wife.

A public divorce was threatened by Lord Aylesford and Lord Randolph unwisely intervened on his brother’s behalf. As Winston’s son Randolph later wrote: “Accordingly [Lord Randolph] took upon himself to call on the Princess of Wales. He was accompanied by a young newly created peer, Lord Alington. They pointed out to the Princess that it would be undesirable for divorce proceedings to be instituted and they asked her to tell the Prince to stop Aylesford continuing with his divorce plans. At the same time, Lord Randolph let it be widely known that he had in his possession certain letters which the Prince of Wales had written to Lady Aylesford; and Sir Charles Dilke recollected that he said: ‘I have the Crown of England in my pocket.'”
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The International Churchill Society (ICS), founded in 1968 shortly after Churchill death, is the world’s preeminent member organisation dedicated to preserving the historic legacy of Sir Winston Churchill.

At a time when leadership is challenged at every turn, that legacy looms larger and remains more relevant than ever.